Hydropower Plant Types [Major Types Explained]

What is a hydropower plant? The systems that produce electricity in accordance with the gravitational law and the law of conservation of energy are known as hydroelectric power plants. A water reservoir, turbines, an electric motor or generator, rotors and stators, and channeling pipes make up the majority of these devices. Hydroelectric power plants operate on the principle that when water strikes turbine blades vigorously, its kinetic energy is converted to mechanical energy.

The generator uses the motion of the blades to create a powerful electric field, which causes electrons to flow and create energy. Through vessels and channels, this electricity is subsequently delivered to the users. The difference in water heights, or “head,” and the amount of water flowing determine how much energy is generated.

Hydroelectric Power Plant Types

The many hydroelectric power plants are varied. The quantity and velocity of water influence their choice of them. The place we have access to and the amount of money we wish to spend are other factors.

Those large power plants, like micro-hydro plants, and tiny plants, which do not cause as much harm, can be installed close to your home.

Pumped-Storage Hydroelectricity

Actually, the need for power drives this system. Depending on the need, it pumps water at various heights between two reservoirs. The extra power from generating pushes the water into a slightly higher basin when the need for energy is lower. When there is a greater demand, the turbines return water into a small reservoir by way of it. Commercially speaking, pumped storage is the most significant type of energy storage, and it also raises the system’s daily capacity factor.

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Run of the River Hydroelectricity (ROR)

This kind lacks the capacity for storage or reservations. The water moves through the turbines as it flows. It shouldn’t be static because it moves constantly. Therefore, the water from upstream should be utilized now or diverted around the dam.

Tide Power Hydroelectricity

Electricity may be created from the tidal waves that the moon’s pull on the earth causes to rise and fall in the seas. These systems are predictable since we are aware of the lunar tide cycle and can design the system accordingly. And if such a system is constructed, it provides benefits like dispatchable generation, which implies that power production may be halted based on demand. Less often used methods transfer kinetic energy rather than potential energy using waterwheels rather than a dam.

Underground Hydroelectricity

This concept is based on the usage of two streams, which can be a waterfall or a mountain lake, to create a significant natural height difference. The water flow from the upper sink to the generating site and a horizontal tail race that transports the water to the lower sink are accommodated by the subterranean tunnel.

Micro Hydro System

They are primarily divided into two sorts based on the height of the skull, which determines the pressure. Low-head and high-head are these sorts. A waterfall is an example of a high-head system, whereas a fast-moving stream is an example of a low-head system. They are incredibly robust systems that are rather massive.